TCP/IP is a generic name for the series Network Protocols that for a large majority of the network communication between computers guarantee. The internet is the largest and best-known TCP / IP-network. The name TCP / IP is a contraction of the two best-known protocols that are part of the TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocoland InternetProtocol).

The Internet is an open network. On this network one uses the TCP / IP protocol to exchange data. TCP / IP is a packet-switched protocol to which the data in small packets are sent independently of one another. The communication software places the packets in the correct order, detects any errors in the reception if necessary certain packages to ask again until all the packages have been received.



1 History TCP / IP


The Internet is one of the positive remnants of the Cold War. At the height of the Cold War, late 60, Americans asked sight how they should communicate with each other and with allies during a nuclear attack.

The answer was found in a network of computers,, where no one is boss. It was the forerunner of the Internet, as we know it.

The great advantage of this system was that computers could keep in touch with each other, even if one of the computers tripped. The Pentagon saw something in there and founded in december 1969 of ARPA project (Advanced Research Project Agency). Within the 3 year they had to get it done 37 computers to connect with each other over a large distance. All computer were provided with a unique network address length 8 bits. The maximum number of computers that could be had connected 256.

The computers within this one network communicated with each other by means of the NPC (Network Control Program), the precursor of TCP / IP. The reason why this protocol did not make it is because it only works with a fixed address table up 265 computers.

The network has been increasingly used by researchers and scientists to exchange messages, was the result of this, that more and more universities were connected to the network resulting in 1981 to the 213 computers were connected to each other.

Because the maximum of the network was almost achieved and the management problems were too large, had to find another solution. NPC protocol was amended in 1983 and renamed TCP / IP.

The TCP / IP protocol is the most common protocol. Since Windows 2000 TCP / IP has become the standard protocol for data communication.

2 Group Protocols TCP

A group protocol is a motley collection of conduct, which all the traffic, depending on their purposes, determine on the Internet. Unnoticed make use of the protocols when you are surfing the Internet, email touts or files download. The main group of protocols TCP-IP:

  • Arp
  • TCP
  • UDP
  • HTTP
  • SMTP
  • POP3
  • FTP
  • SSH
  • DHCP
  • DNS


2.1 Arp

The adres resolution protocol has the task of packet, that is delivered to the unique IP address to further guide to the appropriate host within the network. To ARP sends a call to all hosts within the network. This is done based on IP addresses and MAC addresses.


2.2 TCP

The Transmission Control Protocol is very important. It sees to it that your data safely and completely arrive at the final destination. Comes a package not with the IP protocol, than TCP ensures that this packet is retransmitted (TCP works over IP). The TCP protocol uses a fixed connection between client and server. If the connection is established, the client and server exchange data with each other. They know exactly how much of each data should be sent and they are able to align themselves so similar so that each package has arrived.


2.3 UDP

Applications can also use the User Datagram Protocol. This protocol is much less secure than the much larger TCP protocol. UDP does not give you the guarantee that your packages arrive complete and it imposes no connection to the final destination. Therefore UDP is often an unreliable protocol, Some applications have simply required UDP because TCP ensures delay by its controls.

UDP sends a signal to all computers on a network, and any computer with the same server can receive this signal. Application that use UDP are among others:

  • Online games
  • DNS
  • DHCP
  • Streaming


2.4 HTTP

The Hyper Text Transfer Protocol is responsible for the communication on the World Wide Web. HTTP send HTML pages with text, image and sound to your browser. The protocol is active only when a connection is made to a server or when a server responds to a request from a client.

The default port for HTTP is 80.


HTTPS of hyper tekst transfer protocol secure is used to sent via Internet date, to secure. Https uses authentication and encryption

To send that makes HTTPs typically used the same method as HTTP only happened under a secure connection on port 443.


2.6 SMTP

To send an email to another computer it Simple Mail Transfer Protocol responsible. This protocol assumes that the mailbox of the recipient is always accessible. Obviously, this is not always the case, Therefore, an additional protocol was developed POP3. This happened under the port number 25.


2.7 POP3

The post office protocol is a protocol to retrieve email from a mail server, POP3 can not send email, hence you by your ISP (internet service provider) both get the name of the SMTP and POP3.


2.8 FTP

The file transfer protocol is a protocol used to download and upload files. This may be for example,. to a web server. FTP uses ports 20 in 21.

2.9 SSH

Secure shell is a protocol in which information will be sent encrypted. Is widely used among Linux users, eg. To set up a connection from a Windows client to a Linux server, This can be used to make Putty. SSH uses port 22. Linux supports standard SSH, as Apple does this because it is based on Linux, However, Windows continues this behind which there are alternatives such as Putty.


2.10 DHCP

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol),not everyone in the world can get a fixed IP address, simply because there are not enough. This is also the reason why providers often ask for extra money if a customer wants to have a fixed IP address. For now the most efficient way to deal with IP addresses is a provider use a DHCP server. As a user, you must log on the server and you will get a 'dynamic’ IP address assigned. Shut down the connection, then the IP address is assigned to another user.

In networks can distribute the useful static IP addresses to network printers,servers.

2.11 DNS

The domain name system Protocol is responsible for linking the domain name to numeric IP addresses and vice versa. Otherwise we would IPV an IP address must remember what is not convenient.




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