History of computer (1623-2014)
In 1623 built Wilhelm Schickard ( born 22 april 1592 ) the first mechanical calculator that could add and subtract six figure. This machine even had a bell which indicated an overflow. He was therefore Blaise Pascal and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz twenty years. Blaise Pascal ( born 16 June 1623) made in the 17and century the first counter, the PASCALINE where he 3 year worked (1642-1645). The Pascaline was one of the first mechanical calculators. Pascal started to think about a calculator because of the many calculations that his father as a tax officer had to do professionally. He discovered that the most energy-intensive in the endless on- and aftelsommen the transfer number is. Pascal developed a wooden box, in which ( first six, later eight tandradertjes ) were constructed next to one another, as in a watch handles together. Each French currency had its own cog and did, when it was rotated, the wheels beside depending on the value at staggered in: the effect of the transfer. This finding is often regarded as the forerunner of the computer and was revolutionary for its time. However, although the invention has time- and energy gain for the user meant, manufacturing costs were so high that almost nobody wanted to buy the unit. Eventually only 50 sold. However, the Pascaline was not very reliable. Gottfried Wilhelm (from) Leibniz ( born 22 april 1592 ) a versatile German improved this machine. In 1672 Leibniz built a calculator, could multiply that, parts and roots. His method for mechanically held multiply two hundred years stand. 1728
- Falcon gets the idea to control looms with punch cards. These punched cards were wooden planks, containing a plurality of holes. The figures and patterns through the loom were interwoven into the fabric were determined by the location of the holes in the punch cards. These boards were so in fact the first programs. This idea was further developed by Jacquard. The Frenchman built and sold about 10.000 Jacquard-weefgetouwen, based on this principle automation.
1822 – 1834
- The Englishman Charles Babbage shows a machine for making mathematical tables: of differentiemachine (difference engine). Babbage had further ideas for a universal calculator (analytical engine), but this machine hit never completed. In today's computers are used many ideas Babbage.
- Augusta Adda Byron, the daughter of Lord Byron, will first see the possibilities of Babbage machine. She also introduces him to the binary machine to work. She writes programs for this computer, and therefore it is the first computer programmer in history.
- George Boole develops the boolean algebra, the mathematical basis of any current computer
- Scheutz, the first "printer" from. This was coupled to a calculator.
- The American Hollerith, an official at the census department, develops an electrical machine for the analysis of the statistical data. This machine was first used in the census 1890. For each member of the population 1 punch card used. By using this machine the work that was otherwise 500 people did shortened for several years to work for 43 machines in only 4 soak.
- In Japan, the company founded NEC.
- John von Neumann (mathematician) Born in Budapest, 28 december 1903 – Washington D.C., 8 February 1957, has played a very important role in the development of the computer. At the end of the war, he became involved in the military project ENIAC, the construction of the first electronic computer. There was a sequel planned, of EDVAC, and Von Neumann designed this for his namesake revolutionary Von Neumann architecture, where a CPU and a working memory to be used, whereby not only the data, but also, the program loaded into the working memory. This architecture is still used in essentially all non-parallel computers. He invented the field of cellular automata on a piece of paper and designed the first self-replicating machines with paper and pencil. De term 'Von Neumann-machine’ is also used for self-replicating machines. Von Neumann is therefore considered as the founder of the current computer architecture.
- William Deforest developed the first electron tubes.
- The company founded Xerox.
- The company with the name IBM buys Tabulating Machine Company that was founded by Hollerith.
- Future processor manufacturer Motorola founded
- Allan Turing devised a universal calculator that was never built. Based on the idea he made in the U.S.A.. a machine that converted text into secret code. In 1941 Turing moved back to England to help the army in cracking the secret messages of the Germans.
- The German Zuse had started developing a program-controlled machine, de Z1. In 1941 he developed the Z3 through a number of intermediate steps. This model met all requirements and worked excellently. The Z3 contained 2300 relay.
- IBM introduces the first electronic typewriter market.
1941 – 1944
- De Mark 1 was developed at Harvard University by Howard Aiken in cooperation with IBM. De Mark 1 was a huge machine using punched cards programmable calculator. The machine weighed 5 tone, was 16 meter lang en 2,5 m. The machine contained 760.000 components, including 3.304 relay, 3.000 ball bearings and a whopping 800 miles thread. The memory of this computer could 72 Numbers of 23 figures and algebraic signs include. De Mark 1 numbers could of 23 digit 0.3 seconds at each addition and subtraction, and 6 second multiply with each other.
- De ENIAC (Electronic Numerator, Integrator, Analyzer and Computer) wast developed by J. Presbert Eckley in John Mauchly. The ENIAC was an electron tubes computer that 5.000 could perform operations per second. Numbers had to quickly save the ENIAC 1.000 electron tubes required. This machine was led into 1955 used by the US Army.
- MARK 2. This machine could in 1 second 5 summations perform and contained 13.000 relay.
- The first series-produced commercial computer was the UNIVAC.
- The main storage medium in the 50s, the punch card.
- 13 september 1956 IBM introduced the first hard disk: Random AccessMethod of Accounting and Control. Of RAMAC consisted of 50 stacked magnetic disks with a diameter of 61 cm (24 inch). There were two speelkoppen. Was the total capacity of the disk 5 MB.
- The United States start with the development of the network ARPA. In 18 months, the US launches its own satellite which provides global communications.
- The first integrated circuits (CHIPS) come on the market. A chip is a thin layer of silicon on which a complete electronic circuit is integrated. These chips were first applied in the third-generation computers in the mid- 60.
- IBM introduced the 1401, de eerste high-volume, stored program, memory core circuit diagram mainframe computer. His versatility in running enterprise applications of all kinds helped it become the most popular computer in the world in the early ' 1960. IBM also introduced the 1403 keten printer, which the era of rapid, high-volume printing effect launched. Until the advent of the laser printer in the seventies was 1403 unsurpassed in quality. Of 1401 was to reach the first computer system into the world of 10.000 units sold.
- The COBOL programming language is drawn.
- IBM introduces the first magnetic hard disk.
- The first computer game is developed by Steve Russell.
- Douglas Engelbart takes a patent on the idea of the mouse and a year later he demonstrates the first working mouse.
- The first mini-computers with screen and keyboard from IBM and DEC appear on the market.
- IBM developed the floppy disk and the disk drive. These would only 1970 come on the market.
- Gordon Moore in Robert Noyce starten Intel op.
- ARPA-Net, the forerunner of the Internet, is put into use by the US military.
- The first microprocessor is introduced. A microprocessor, together with the memory, plus the in- and output features a full-fledged computer.
- England and Norway are also close to the ARPA-Net.
- The still widely used C programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie van Bell Labs.
- In 1974 The new standard TCP / IP to send digital files via computer networks is developed.
- In 1974 ontwikkelde Bob Kahn (1938) of the research Arpa (Advanced Research Projects Agency) US Department of Defense in cooperation with Vinton Cerf (1943) from the University of Standford the standard TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) to send digital files via computer. TCP / IP is a protocol in which a file is cut into small digital packets independently find the quickest route over the network. The software on the receiving computer puts the packets in the correct order and check it for errors as long until the original file is stuck together. Due to the introduction of TCP / IP could independently of each operating computer- Networks of American universities and research institutes via the in 1969 to military Arpanet came about as a standard to communicate with each other. Not in 1982, when the US Department of Defense's TCP / IP protocol as standard introduced for all hosts of the Arpanet, was TCP / IP fully operational. In 1997 kregen de internetpioniers Vinton Cerf en Bob Kahn de ‘National Medal of Technology’ for their contribution to the creation of the modern Internet.
- Steve Jobs in Stephen Wozniac Starting from their garage selling homemade computers. Their company will later named Apple.
1976 • IBM starts working on the development of the ink jet printer. • Bill Gates en Paul Allen richten Microsoft op. A few years before they released the Basic programming already on the market. 1977
- Apple starts selling the very popular Apple II.
- The first email is sent over a network.
- Don Bricklin in Bob Franston develop VisiCalc, the first electronic spreadsheet.
- IBM is the first micro-computers running DOS on the market. The MS DOS was developed by IBM Microsoft.De 5150 ran on an Intel 8088 chip with a speed of up to 4,77 MHz. The system had depending on the configuration 16 of 64 KB of RAM and storage had to rely on 5,25 inch floppy’s of cassettes. So the computer had no hard drive. Further, IBM uses MS-DOS which was provided by Microsoft. That software was written in haste, making the DOS operating system been plagued with a memory problem.
- TCP / IP is the standard protocol for communication, and this is the start of the world-wide Internet.
- IBM began selling laser printer.
- Philips en Sony introduceren de CD-ROM.
- Apple developed the Macintosh, The first computer with a graphical interface, which will be very popular.
- Jack Tramiel buy after his departure from Commodore, Atari on. The graphic Atari computers with their computer will be quite popular in the late eighties.
- Commodore start de productie van de Amiga, which works about the same as the Mac and Atari.
- Microsoft releases Windows on the market in response to the Macintosh, de Atari en de Amiga computers.
- The Pentium is launched. The clock speed of the processor goes from 75 Mhz tot 266 Mhz.
- The standard home PCs are equipped with 16 Mb RAM, a hard disk 2 GB or more, and a CD-ROM.
- Microsoft presents its new operating system Windows 95 for.
- Toy Story, the first long-playing computer animated film is in theaters.
- Sun developed the Java programming language.
- De DVD, CD disc with a capacity of 17 Gb, is announced.
- The Pentium II with MMX instruction set comes on the market.
- Intel announces the Pentium III to, a processor with a clock speed 450 - 600 Mhz.
- Most PCs come standard with 64 MB RAM, a hard disk 6 GB of meer, a fast 3D graphics card, a sound card, CD-ROM en modem.
- About 147 million people worldwide use the Internet.
- Microsoft Windows 2000, the successor to Windows 98 en Windows NT 4.0 comes on the market, as well as the new Office 2000.
- Linux, a free operating system, starts on the rise.
- All over the world companies are doing the greatest efforts to difficulties in the transition to the year 2000 To avoid.
- Maxtor buys competitor Quantum hard drive. Op dat moment is Quantum de nummer twee drive maker, behind Seagate; This acquisition makes Maxtor the world's largest hard drive manufacturer.
- Seagate produces the first 15,000-rpm hard drive, de Cheetah X15.
- Seagate scores another first with the Barracuda ATA V Serial ATA hard drive.
- IBM sells its Data Storage Division to Hitachi, ending its involvement in the development and marketing of disk drive technology. • Western Digital introduces the first 10,000-rpm SATA hard drive, de 37GB Raptor, intended for businesses.
- Debut of the first 0.85-inch hard disk, Toshiba’s MK2001MTN. It can store 2 GB of data on a platter.
- Toshiba introduces its MK4007 GAL, the 40 GB on one 1.8-inch platter. The first hard drive using perpendicular magnetic recording. Seagate Announces $ 1,9 billion acquisition of rival HDD firm Maxtor.
- Seagate releases a 750GB hard drive, the first 3.5″ hard disk to use for the consumer with perpendicular storage.
- Western Digital launches its 10,000-rpm Raptor X SATA hard drive, expanding its capacity to 150GB. In addition, a flashy transparent window on there, allows specially designed computer cases to show the inner workings. • Seagate announces a 1-inch hard drive that has a storage capacity of 12GB. The drives were ready for delivery in the third quarter of 2006.
- In januari 2007 Seagate announced the world's first true 1TB hard disk drive to.
- In 2007 brings the American computerbe- driving Apple iPhone in the consumer market. The iPhone touchscreen from 2007 was a multifunctional device that functions as a mobile phone, iPod, photos, organizer, Internet and mail were combined. In the introduction, there was a model of four and one of eight gigabyte flash memory available.
- Of IBM Roadrunneris now the world's fastest computer, and the first petaflop-computer. The Roadrunner is twice faster than the Blue Gene System.
- 22 October: Windows 7 Launched by Microsoft.
- 1 month later launched Google Chrome OS, at least the code was released to the open source community. Google says Chrome suits and faster next year, will be simpler and safer than all the existing operating systems.
- In early summer, only it was about Steve Jobs. Rumors were that Jobs would be forced to stop at his eyeball Apple because of a serious illness. He was not seen in January at the office. Jobs turned out to have undergone a liver transplant after being diagnosed with cancer. Investors took blame, said Apple had never allowed to withhold information. Without Jobs, Apple's simply worth less. That controversy touched the heart of the matter: What happens to Apple if Jobs drops? Jobs is indeed previously been away and so did the then computer maker decided not good. Only on his return to 1997 Apple rose again to great heights in high speed and launched several products that fell outside the original scope, like iPod, de iPhone en Macs met Intel-processoren. Apple is once again a major force in the market, but the complications of this year give cause for concern about the dependence of the company from his (topman. http://webwereld.nl/software/60928-de-7-belangrijkste-gebeurtenissen-van-2009/pagina-4)
- February: Telenet launched Fibernet, a new generation of Internet that speeds up 100 Mbps allows. In addition to the increased speed of the Internet connection, Telenet also offers a higher download volume to more than 1 million
- Telenet launches Yelo, a new multimedia platform that digital TV allows customers to also watch their favorite television shows and movies on iPad, iPhone, and in the future, computers and other smartphones. With Yelo Telenet watching television in Flanders again in a refreshing way.
- A tablet PC is a tablet or simply computer which can be used in the hand. It can be seen as a great, powerfulpda, or as a small laptop. The concept is the brainchild of Microsoft, but the idea dates back to the years 60. The first tablet PC appeared early 90 on the market On 27 January 2010 Apple presented the iPad, die de tablet-pc populariseerde. These tablets run on Apple's own operating system iOS. The big advantage is that the tablets are easy to operate.
- Microsoft introduceert Windows Home Server 2011
- The Raspberry Pi gets a face,The Raspberry Pi is an ARM-based structure. This small and very affordable computer is made in the UK and is primarily intended for educational and hobbyist purposes. It is perfectly possible by its energy-efficient components have this 24/24 run, Here we think of a server or multimedia. The Raspberry pi supports full hd 1080p, Most codecs and has a fairly user-friendly interface.
- Intel would now planning to offer a similar alternative to the Raspberry PI. Met het Next Unit of Computing (NUC) platform, the company would plan to Sandy Bridge and Ivy Bridge i3 later and Core i5 mobile processors to package into a cabinet 10 cm at 10 cm. The motherboard would be a Thunderbolt, HDMI en USB 3.0 get connections. On the motherboard would be two SO-DIMM memory slots come and two small mini PCI Express x1 connections to possibly a TV card.
- Samsung introduces in September smartwath, the smart watch receives a traditional 2.5-inch 320×320-screen and runs on Android. Presumably the gear runs on a Samsung Exynos 4212 processor, we know of several Samsung phones. Via bluetooth 4.0 the smart watch communicates with smartphones and tablets. It is unclear whether using the Gear will be with devices from other brands, or that the Gear works only with Samsung devices.
- De Huawei Ascend P6, a Chinese manufacturer of smartphones but is primarily and still working with mainly business products such as equipment for telecom networks. This now brings the thinnest smartphone on the market.
- Android 4.4 KitKat appears.
- Apple Releases 2 new models of smartphones on the market. After years of the same design, Stabbing she iPhone 6 in 6+ a new look.
- During Display Innovation in trade in Yoko Gay City, the company Semiconductor Energy Laboratory (SEL) a new 8.7-inch Super Amoled screen display that is very flexible.
- The introduction of 6TB hard drives with platter 1TB is a fact, The company Seagate is hence the market.